PERSIA BEFORE THE REVOLUTION 499 lenders to a considerable extent, whereas in Persia this is rarely the case. Moreover, thousands of the Khorasan peasants go to work in Russian Turkestan during the winter and thus supplement their incomes. Persians are not of a saving disposition like the majority of Indians, who save to excess but ruin themselves on weddings. Finally, the Persian peasant appears to be finer in physique and more intelligent than the Panjab cultivator, and in spite of the oppression that prevails is better off from many points of view. The Tribesmen.óNo picture of Persia would be complete without reference to its tribesmen, who may number one-fourth of the entire population. The ethno- graphical medley is great, with Kurds, Turkoman, Timuris (of Arab origin), Hazaras, Baluchis, Turks, and Arabs in Khorasan alone; but, although these are of different origin and in many cases speak different languages, their customs are similar. They usually live in black tents woven from goat's hair cloth, and gradually graze their flocks towards the mountains in the spring, returning to the plains in the autumn. They practically never marry outside the tribe and are consequently pure bred, hence the immutability of their separate customs. Nominally Moslems, these free sons of the dasht, as the untilled land is termed in Persia, obey nobody except their chief, who in cases of importance summons a council composed of the elders of the tribe. The authority of the chief depends on his personality ; and the more the inner working of a tribe is studied the greater is the number of the jealousies, rivalries, and feuds that are disclosed. At present the Bakhtiari tribe is of great importance, owing to the part it has played in the recent revolution ; but in no tribe are there greater divisions, one section having even fought for the ex-Shah against the majority of its fellow-tribesmen. The greater freedom of the women, the virility of all classes, and the splendid health enjoyed by the nomads are worth much ; and the English traveller usually feels drawn towards them and realizes that their virtues far outweigh their faults.